Skip to main content
padlock icon - secure page this page is secure

Second language pragmatics development through different instructional techniques : Focus on speech act of criticizing

Buy Article:

$29.96 + tax (Refund Policy)


This study investigated the effectiveness of three types of instruction on learning the speech act of criticizing by 100 Iranian learners of English. For 10 weeks, the consciousness raising group (N=27), input enhancement group (N=23), and ZPD (Zone of Proximal Development)-sensitive group (N=25) participated in the study. The three treatment groups were compared with a control group (N=25) on pre-tests, immediate and delayed posttests performance of discourse completion test and role-play test. The results revealed that treatment groups significantly improved and outperformed the control group. They maintained their improvement in the delayed posttest. In addition, the results showed the superiority of ZPD-sensitive instruction in relation to two other methods, and better performance of consciousness raising instruction than input-enhancement method. Finally, by interviewing the participants, the researchers could understand the opinions of learners about the instructions they received. The findings and implications are discussed.

No Reference information available - sign in for access.
No Citation information available - sign in for access.
No Supplementary Data.
No Article Media
No Metrics

Keywords: Discourse Completion Test; Role-play test; ZPD-sensitive instruction; consciousness raising instruction; input enhancement instruction; speech act of criticizing

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: March 2, 2020

This article was made available online on June 26, 2019 as a Fast Track article with title: "Second language pragmatics development through different instructional techniques: Focus on speech act of criticizing".

  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more