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Open Access Impact of mycobacterial culture among HIV-infected adults with presumed TB in Uganda: a prospective cohort study

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Background: Implementation of new tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic strategies in resource-constrained settings is challenging. We measured the impact of solid and liquid mycobacterial cultures on treatment practices for patients undergoing TB evaluation in Kampala, Uganda.

Methods: We enrolled consecutive smear-negative, human immunodeficiency virus positive adults with cough of 2 weeks from September 2009 to April 2010. Laboratory technicians performed mycobacterial cultures on solid and liquid media. We compared empiric treatment decisions with solid and liquid culture in terms of diagnostic yield and time to results, and assessed impact on patient management.

Results: Of 200 patients enrolled, 26 (13%) had culture-confirmed TB: 22 (85%) on solid culture alone, 2 (8%) on liquid culture alone, and 2 (8%) on both solid and liquid culture. Thirty-four patients received empiric anti-tuberculosis treatment, but only 10 (29%) were culture-positive. Median time to a positive result on solid culture was 92 days (interquartile range [IQR] 69–148) compared to 106 days (IQR 66–157) for liquid culture. No patients initiated treatment following a positive result on liquid culture.

Conclusion: The introduction of mycobacterial culture did not influence care for patients undergoing evaluation for TB in Kampala, Uganda. Attention to contextual factors surrounding implementation is needed to ensure the effective introduction of new testing strategies in low-income countries.
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Keywords: diagnostics; implementation science; liquid culture

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Medicine, Mulago Hospital, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda, Makerere University Joint AIDS Program, Kampala, Uganda 2: Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA 3: Makerere University-University of California San Francisco Research Collaboration, Kampala, Uganda 4: Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado, USA 5: Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA, Makerere University-University of California San Francisco Research Collaboration, Kampala, Uganda, Curry International Tuberculosis Center, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA 6: Makerere University Joint AIDS Program, Kampala, Uganda 7: Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA, HIV/AIDS Division, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA 8: Department of Microbiology, Makerere University School of Biomedical Sciences, Kampala, Uganda 9: Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, Kampala, Uganda

Publication date: June 21, 2015

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  • Public Health Action (PHA), The Union's quarterly Open Access journal, welcomes the submission of articles on operational research. It publishes high-quality scientific research on health services, providing new knowledge on how to improve access, equity, quality and efficiency of health systems and services.

    The Editors will consider any manuscript reporting original research on quality improvements, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, training and capacity building, with a focus on all relevant areas of public health (e.g. infection control, nutrition, TB, HIV, vaccines, smoking, COVID-19, microbial resistance, outbreaks etc).

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