Clinical standards for the assessment, management and rehabilitation of post-TB lung disease
METHODS: A panel of global experts in the field of TB care and PR was identified; 62 participated in a Delphi process. A 5-point Likert scale was used to score the initial ideas for standards and after several rounds of revision the document was approved (with 100% agreement).
RESULTS: Five clinical standards were defined: Standard 1, to assess patients at the end of TB treatment for PTLD (with adaptation for children and specific settings/situations); Standard 2, to identify patients with PTLD for PR; Standard 3, tailoring the PR programme to patient needs and the local setting; Standard 4, to evaluate the effectiveness of PR; and Standard 5, to conduct education and counselling. Standard 6 addresses public health aspects of PTLD and outcomes due to PR.
CONCLUSION: This is the first consensus-based set of Clinical Standards for PTLD. Our aim is to improve patient care and quality of life by guiding clinicians, programme managers and public health officers in planning and implementing adequate measures to assess and manage PTLD.
Keywords: clinical standards; post-TB lung disease; pulmonary rehabilitation; sequelae; tuberculosis
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Respiratory Diseases Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri IRCCS, Tradate, Italy 2: Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa, DSI-NRF South African Centre of Excellence in Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis (SACEMA), Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa 3: Division of Pulmonary Rehabilitation, Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri IRCCS, Montescano (PV), Italy 4: Division of Pulmonary Rehabilitation, Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri, IRCCS, Tradate, Italy 5: Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa 6: Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, Stellenbosch University & Tygerberg Hospital, South Africa 7: Heart Lung Clinic St Vincent´s Hospital and Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia, Partners In Health (Socios En Salud Sucursal), Lima, Peru 8: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK 9: Aurum Institute, Johannesburg, South Africa 10: Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia 11: Hong Kong Tuberculosis, Chest and Heart Diseases Association, Hong Kong 12: Department of Medicine, Therapeutics, Dermatology and Psychiatry, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya, Department of Clinical Sciences, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK 13: Heartland National TB Center of Excellence, San Antonio, TX, University of Texas Health Science Center, Tyler, TX, USA 14: Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Medical Centre of the University of Munich (LMU), Munich, Germany, German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Munich, Germany 15: The Children´s Hospital at Westmead and the University of Sydney WHO Collaborating Center in Tuberculosis, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia 16: Harvard Medical School, Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Boston, MA, USA 17: University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, department of Pulmonary diseases and Tuberculosis, Groningen, the Netherlands, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, TB center Beatrixoord, Groningen, the Netherlands 18: TB and Acute Respiratory Diseases Section, Department of Communicable Diseases, Directorate General of Disease Surveillance and Control, Ministry of Health, Oman 19: National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK 20: Moscow Research and Clinical Center for Tuberculosis Control, Moscow Health Department, Moscow, Russian Federation 21: Mycobacterial Unit, Pneumology Department. University General Hospital of Gran Canaria “Dr. Negrin”, Las Palmas, Gran Canaria, ALOSA TB Academy, Spain 22: Laboratório de Inovações em Terapias, Ensino e Bioprodutos (LITEB), Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil 23: Department of Pneumology and Allergology, Nicolae Testemitanu State University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova, Division of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Research Center Borstel, Borstel, Germany 24: TB Reference Centre, Villa Marelli Institute, Niguarda Hospital, Milan, Italy 25: National Institute of Respiratory Diseases and the Environment (INERAM), Asunción, Paraguay, Radboud University Medical Center, TB Expert Center Dekkerswald, Department of Respiratory Diseases, Nijmegen - Groesbeek, The Netherlands 26: Reference Center Hélio Fraga, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Ministry of Health, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil 27: Department of clinical sciences, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK, Innovation For Health And Development (IFHAD) Laboratory for Research and Development, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru, Innovacion Por la Salud Yel Desarollo, (IPSYD) Asociación Benéfica PRISMA, Lima, Peru 28: Université de Paris, APHP Centre, Lung Function Unit, Department of Respiratory Diseases, Cochin Hospital, Paris, France 29: Institute of Public Health, Porto University; Medical School, Porto University; Hospital Centre of Vila Nova de Gaia/Espinho, Porto, Portugal 30: Innovation For Health And Development (IFHAD) Laboratory for Research and Development, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru, Innovacion Por la Salud Yel Desarollo, (IPSYD) Asociación Benéfica PRISMA, Lima, Peru, Department of Infectious Diseases, Imperial College London, London, UK 31: Tuberculosis Research Programme SEPAR, Barcelona, Spain 32: Department of Pulmonology, Inselspital Bern, University of Bern, Switzerland 33: UCSF Center for Tuberculosis, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, UCSF Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital and Trauma Center, San Francisco, CA, USA 34: Clínica de Tuberculosis, Hospital General Tijuana, Universidad Autónoma De Baja California, Mexico 35: Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF), Operational Center, Paris, France 36: Pulmonary Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, “G. Papanikolaou” Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece 37: Northern State Medical University, Northern Arctic Federal University, Arkhangelsk, Russian Federation 38: Thoracic Diseases Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil 39: Kibong´oto Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, Moshi Kilimanjaro, Tanzania 40: Tuberculosis Clinic, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosio Villegas, Mexico City 41: Infectious Disease Translational Research Programme, Department of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, Singapore, National University of Singapore Institute for Health Innovation & Technology (iHealthtech), Singapore 42: Pulmonology Division, Municipal Hospital F.J. Muñiz and Instituto Vaccarezza, Buenos Aires, Argentina 43: Damien Foundation, Brussels, Belgium 44: Department of Infectious Diseases, Galliera Hospital, Genoa, Italy 45: Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Brazil 46: Department of TB and Respiratory Diseases, National Institute of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases, New Delhi, India 47: Division of Pulmonary Rehabilitation, Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri, IRCCS, Tradate, Italy, Department of Medicine and Surgery, Respiratory Diseases, University of Insubria, Tradate, Varese-Como, Italy 48: Department of Infection, Royal London Hospital, Barts Health NHS Trust, London, UK, Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK 49: Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hinduja Hospital & Research Center, Mumbai, India 50: Respiratory Unit, Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri IRCCS, Lumezzane (BS), Italy 51: Public Health Consulting Group, Lugano, Switzerland 52: Clinical Epidemiology and Medical Statistics Unit, Department of Medical, Surgical and Experimental Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy 53: Division of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Research Center Borstel, Borstel, Germany, German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Clinical Tuberculosis Unit, Borstel, Germany, Respiratory Medicine and International Health, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany
Publication date: October 1, 2021
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