‘Something so hard': a mixed-methods study of home sputum collection for tuberculosis contact investigation in Uganda
DESIGN: We conducted a convergent mixed-methods study to describe the outcomes of home sputum collection in 91 contacts and examine their context through 19 nested contact interviews and two focus group discussions with lay health workers (LHWs).
RESULTS: LHWs collected sputum from 35 (39%) contacts. Contacts reporting cough were more likely to provide sputum than those with other symptoms or risk factors (53% vs. 15%, RR 3.6, 95%CI 1.5–2.8, P < 0.001). Males were more likely than females to provide sputum (54% vs. 32%, RR 1.7, 95%CI 1.0–2.8, P = 0.05). Contacts said support from the index patient and the convenience of the home visit facilitated collection. Missing containers and difficulty producing sputum spontaneously impeded collection. Women identified stigma as a barrier. LHWs emphasized difficulty in procuring sputum and discomfort pressing contacts to produce sputum.
CONCLUSIONS: Home sputum collection by LHWs entails different challenges from sputum collection in clinical settings. More research is needed to develop interventions to mitigate stigma and increase success of home-based collection.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Uganda Tuberculosis Implementation Research Consortium, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda, Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut 2: Uganda Tuberculosis Implementation Research Consortium, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda 3: Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 4: Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA 5: Uganda Tuberculosis Implementation Research Consortium, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda 6: Uganda Tuberculosis Implementation Research Consortium, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda, Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine Section, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
Publication date: October 1, 2018
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