Detection of tuberculosis patterns in digital photographs of chest X-ray images using Deep Learning: feasibility study
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective, observational study, patients with previously diagnosed TB were enrolled. Photographs of their CXRs were taken using a consumer-grade digital still camera. The images were stratified by pathological patterns into classes: cavity, consolidation, effusion, interstitial changes, miliary pattern or normal examination. Image analysis was performed with commercially available Deep Learning software in two steps. Pathological areas were first localised; detected areas were then classified. Detection was assessed using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, and classification using a confusion matrix.
RESULTS: The study cohort was 138 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and TB co-infection (median age 34 years, IQR 28–40); 54 patients were female. Localisation of pathological areas was excellent (area under the ROC curve 0.82). The software could perfectly distinguish pleural effusions from intraparenchymal changes. The most frequent misclassifications were consolidations as cavitations, and miliary patterns as interstitial patterns (and vice versa).
CONCLUSION: Deep Learning analysis of CXR photographs is a promising tool. Further efforts are needed to build larger, high-quality data sets to achieve better diagnostic performance.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland 2: Infectious Disease Institute, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda 3: Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
Publication date: March 1, 2018
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