Skip to main content
padlock icon - secure page this page is secure

Free Content Socio-economic status and risk of tuberculosis: a case-control study of HIV-infected patients in Asia

Download Article:
(PDF 113.4 kb)
SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related opportunistic infection and cause of acquired immune-deficiency syndrome related death. TB often affects those from a low socio-economic background.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the socio-economic determinants of TB in HIV-infected patients in Asia.

DESIGN: This was a matched case-control study. HIV-positive, TB-positive cases were matched to HIV-positive, TB-negative controls according to age, sex and CD4 cell count. A socio-economic questionnaire comprising 23 questions, including education level, employment, housing and substance use, was distributed. Socio-economic risk factors for TB were analysed using conditional logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS: A total of 340 patients (170 matched pairs) were recruited, with 262 (77.1%) matched for all three criteria. Pulmonary TB was the predominant type (n = 115, 67.6%). The main risk factor for TB was not having a university level education (OR 4.45, 95%CI 1.50–13.17, P = 0.007). Burning wood or coal regularly inside the house and living in the same place of origin were weakly associated with TB diagnosis.

CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that lower socio-economic status is associated with an increased risk of TB in Asia. Integrating clinical and socio-economic factors into HIV treatment may help in the prevention of opportunistic infections and disease progression.
No Reference information available - sign in for access.
No Supplementary Data.
No Article Media
No Metrics

Keywords: HIV; TB; matched; questionnaire; socio-economic

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia 2: Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong, SAR China 3: National Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Hanoi, Viet Nam 4: Faculty of Medicine Udayana University & Sanglah Hospital, Bali, Indonesia 5: Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Viet Nam 6: Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Manila, The Philippines 7: Working Group on AIDS, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia/Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia 8: Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 9: Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China 10: Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 11: HIV-Netherlands Australia Thailand Research Collaboration, The Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre and Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand 12: Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, Singapore 13: Hospital Sungai Buloh, Sungai Buloh, Malaysia 14: Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan 15: Therapeutics Research, Education, and AIDS Training in Asia, amfAR – The Foundation for AIDS Research, Bangkok, Thailand

Publication date: February 1, 2018

More about this publication?
  • The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IJTLD) is for clinical research and epidemiological studies on lung health, including articles on TB, TB-HIV and respiratory diseases such as COVID-19, asthma, COPD, child lung health and the hazards of tobacco and air pollution. Individuals and institutes can subscribe to the IJTLD online or in print – simply email us at [email protected] for details.

    The IJTLD is dedicated to understanding lung disease and to the dissemination of knowledge leading to better lung health. To allow us to share scientific research as rapidly as possible, the IJTLD is fast-tracking the publication of certain articles as preprints prior to their publication. Read fast-track articles.

  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
  • Public Health Action
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more