Household food insecurity is associated with low interferon-gamma levels in pregnant Indian women
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between household food insecurity and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) levels in pregnancy.
DESIGN: Pregnant women in India were administered the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) questionnaire and underwent an IFN-γ release assay. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with food insecurity.
RESULTS: Of 538 women, 60 (11%) had household food insecurity, 47 (78%) of which were moderate or severe food insecure. After mitogen stimulation, moderate or severe food insecure women had a median IFN-γ concentration of 4.2 IU/ml (IQR 2.2–9.8) vs. 8.4 IU/ml (IQR 3.0–10) in women with no or mild food insecurity (P = 0.03). In multivariate analysis, higher IFN-γ concentrations were associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection (OR 1.3, 95%CI 0.51–2.1, P = 0.001), and inversely associated with moderate or severe food insecurity (OR −1.6, 95%CI −2.9 to −0.27, P = 0.02) and the number of adults in the household (OR −0.08, 95%CI −0.16 to −0.01, P = 0.03). There was no association between food insecurity and IFN-γ response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen.
CONCLUSION: Food insecurity in pregnancy is associated with low IFN-γ levels. There was no association between food insecurity and IFN-γ response to M. tuberculosis antigen, but our study was underpowered to detect this outcome.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: School of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA 2: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Byramjee-Jeejeebhoy Government Medical College (BJGMC), Pune 3: BJGMC-Johns Hopkins Clinical Trials Unit, Pune, India 4: Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 5: BJGMC-Johns Hopkins Clinical Trials Unit, Pune, India, Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 6: Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 7: Center for Global Health, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, USA
Publication date: 01 July 2017
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