Skip to main content
padlock icon - secure page this page is secure

Open Access Childhood pneumonia and crowding, bed-sharing and nutrition: a case-control study from The Gambia

Download Article:
 Download
(PDF 557.9 kb)
 
SETTING: Greater Banjul and Upper River Regions, The Gambia.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate tractable social, environmental and nutritional risk factors for childhood pneumonia.

DESIGN: A case-control study examining the association of crowding, household air pollution (HAP) and nutritional factors with pneumonia was undertaken in children aged 2–59 months: 458 children with severe pneumonia, defined according to the modified WHO criteria, were compared with 322 children with non-severe pneumonia, and these groups were compared to 801 neighbourhood controls. Controls were matched by age, sex, area and season.

RESULTS: Strong evidence was found of an association between bed-sharing with someone with a cough and severe pneumonia (adjusted OR [aOR] 5.1, 95%CI 3.2–8.2, P < 0.001) and non-severe pneumonia (aOR 7.3, 95%CI 4.1–13.1, P < 0.001), with 18% of severe cases estimated to be attributable to this risk factor. Malnutrition and pneumonia had clear evidence of association, which was strongest between severe malnutrition and severe pneumonia (aOR 8.7, 95%CI 4.2–17.8, P < 0.001). No association was found between pneumonia and individual carbon monoxide exposure as a measure of HAP.

CONCLUSION: Bed-sharing with someone with a cough is an important risk factor for severe pneumonia, and potentially tractable to intervention, while malnutrition remains an important tractable determinant.
No Reference information available - sign in for access.
No Supplementary Data.
No Article Media
No Metrics

Keywords: Africa; cough; household air pollution; particulate matter; risk factors

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Medical Research Council Unit, Fajara, The Gambia; Department of Paediatrics: Child & Youth Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, Centre for International Health, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand 2: London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK 3: Medical Research Council Unit, Fajara, The Gambia 4: Medical Research Council Unit, Fajara, The Gambia; Child Health Department, University of Benin, Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria 5: Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Banjul, The Gambia 6: Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Global Health and Population, Boston, and Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA 7: MRC-Public Health England Centre for Environment and Health, Imperial College London, London, UK 8: Medical Research Council Unit, Fajara, The Gambia, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK 9: Centre for International Health, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand 10: Department of Paediatrics: Child & Youth Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand 11: Medical Research Council (MRC) Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge, UK 12: Medical Research Council Unit, Fajara, The Gambia, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Wavre, Belgium 13: London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Global Health and Population, Boston, and Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Publication date: October 1, 2016

More about this publication?
  • The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on lung health world-wide.

    To share scientific research of immediate concern as rapidly as possible, The Union is fast-tracking the publication of certain articles from the IJTLD and publishing them on The Union website, prior to their publication in the Journal. Read fast-track articles.

    Certain IJTLD articles are also selected for translation into French, Spanish, Chinese or Russian. These are available on the Union website.

  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
  • Public Health Action
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
X
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more