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Open Access Population impact of factors associated with prevalent pulmonary tuberculosis in Tanzania

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SETTING: Tanzania has an estimated tuberculosis (TB) prevalence of 295 per 100 000 adult population. There is currently no nationally representative information on factors associated with TB in Tanzania.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the demographic and clinical factors associated with bacteriologically confirmed TB in the adult general population of Tanzania.

DESIGN: A case-control study nested in a nationally representative TB prevalence survey. All patients with bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB (PTB) constituted cases and a representative sample of people without bacteriologically confirmed PTB constituted controls. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) to identify factors associated with TB.

RESULTS: Age groups 25–34 years (aOR 3.7, 95%CI 1.5–8.8) and 55–64 years (aOR 2.5, 95%CI 1.1–5.5), male sex (aOR 1.6, 95%CI 1.1–2.3) and low body mass index (BMI) (aOR 1.7, 95%CI 1.1–2.8) were significantly associated with TB. Association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and diabetes mellitus (DM) was not statistically significant. The population attributable fraction (PAF) was 2% (95%CI −2 to 5) for DM and 3% (95%CI −2 to 8) for HIV.

CONCLUSION: Being in an older age group, being male and having a low BMI were associated with bacteriologically confirmed PTB. On the population level, classic risk factors for TB have no major effect on prevalent TB from which future transmission may occur.
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Keywords: TB survey; bacteriologically confirmed TB; population-based

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: National Institute for Medical Research, Muhimbili Medical Research Centre, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway 2: International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, South-East Asia Regional Office, New Delhi, India 3: Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research, Puducherry, India, India 4: National Institute for Medical Research, Muhimbili Medical Research Centre, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 5: National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 6: Department of Global Health, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Amsterdam, KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation, The Hague, The Netherlands 7: Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway

Publication date: 01 October 2016

More about this publication?
  • The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on tuberculosis and lung health world-wide.

    Certain IJTLD articles are selected for translation into French, Spanish, Chinese or Russian. They are available on the Union website

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