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Free Content Mortality among patients with pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacteria disease

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SETTING: Tertiary referral center, National Institutes of Health (NIH), USA.

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the mortality rate and its correlates among persons with pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacteria (PNTM) disease.

DESIGN: A retrospective review of 106 patients who were treated at the NIH Clinical Center and met American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America criteria for PNTM. Eligible patients were aged 18 years and did not have cystic fibrosis or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.

RESULTS: Of 106 patients followed for a median of 4.9 years, 27 (25%) died during follow-up, for a mortality rate of 4.2 per 100 person-years. The population was predominantly female (88%) and White (88%), with infrequent comorbidities. Fibrocavitary disease (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–8.3) and pulmonary hypertension (aHR 2.1, 95%CI 0.9–5.1) were associated with a significantly elevated risk of mortality in survival analysis.

CONCLUSIONS: PNTM remains a serious public health concern, with a consistently elevated mortality rate across multiple populations. Significant risk factors for death include fibrocavitary disease and pulmonary hypertension. Further research is needed to more specifically identify clinical and microbiologic factors that jointly influence disease outcome.
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Keywords: epidemiology; lung infection; mortality; non-tuberculous mycobacteria

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Epidemiology Unit, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, USA 2: Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Branch, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA 3: Biostatistics Research Branch, Division of Clinical Research, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA 4: Epidemiology Unit, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, USA 5: Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, USA 6: Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, NIH, Bethesda, USA 7: Department of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Center, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Publication date: May 1, 2016

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  • The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on lung health world-wide.

    To share scientific research of immediate concern as rapidly as possible, The Union is fast-tracking the publication of certain articles from the IJTLD and publishing them on The Union website, prior to their publication in the Journal. Read fast-track articles.

    Certain IJTLD articles are also selected for translation into French, Spanish, Chinese or Russian. These are available on the Union website.

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