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Free Content Correlates of acute lower respiratory tract infections in children under 5 years of age in India

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BACKGROUND: In developing countries, acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI) cause considerable morbidity, hospitalisation and mortality in children aged <5 years.

METHODS: A prospective case-control study was conducted to identify potential socio-demographic, nutritional and environmental risk factors for ALRTI. The World Health Organization definition for ALRTI was used for cases. Healthy children attending child immunisation services were enrolled as controls.

RESULTS: A total of 214 children, 107 cases and 107 controls, were enrolled. Among the cases, pneumonia, severe pneumonia and very severe disease constituted respectively 23.3%, 47.7% and 29%. Among cases and controls, the male-to-female ratio (1.3:1 vs. 0.9:1) and the proportion of infants (64.5% vs. 70.1%) were identical. Parents' literacy level was negatively associated with ALRTI. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, low socio-economic status (OR 4.89, 95%CI 1.93–12.36), upper respiratory infections in family members (OR 5.32, 95%CI 2.11–13.45), inappropriate weaning period (OR 3.01, 95%CI 1.12–8.07), malnutrition (OR 1.75, 95%CI 1.84–3.67), pallor (OR 7.18, 95%CI 2.08–24.82) and cooking fuel other than liquid petroleum gas (OR 3.58, 95%CI 1.23–10.45) were found to be significant risk factors (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified various risk factors for ALRTI, some of which are modifiable by effective community education and public health measures.
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Keywords: acute lower respiratory tract infection; risk factors; under-five children

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Department of Paediatrics, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India

Publication date: 01 March 2013

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  • The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on tuberculosis and lung health world-wide.

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