Lung disease mortality in the United States: the National Longitudinal Mortality Study
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate health disparities associated with lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality in the United States and whether these associations are similar between these outcomes.
DESIGN: The NLMS is a prospective study. Data from NLMS cohort years 1985, 1992, 1993, 1995 and 1996 were included, representing nearly 1.5 million person-years. Lung cancer and COPD mortality relative risks (RRs) from Cox regression analysis, including residential characteristics, marital status, education, health insurance and family income, were evaluated.
RESULTS: By 1998, 1273 lung cancer deaths and 772 COPD deaths occurred. Lung cancer mortality rates were approximately two times higher than COPD mortality rates among race and ethnic groups. Cox regression analysis revealed that low education (RR = 1.77, significant, P = 0.01) and low family income (RR = 1.50, significant, P = 0.01) are associated with lung cancer and COPD mortality, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, sex and smoking status.
CONCLUSIONS: COPD and lung cancer mortality have similar associations with health disparity indicators in the NLMS data, with some differences in the magnitude of the effect.
Document Type: Regular Paper
Affiliations: 1: Surveillance Research Program, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland, USA 2: Office of Healthcare Inspections, Office of Inspector General, United States Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, District of Columbia, USA 3: United States Census Bureau, Suitland, Maryland, USA
Publication date: August 1, 2009
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