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Open Access Flowering pattern and seed development in indeterminate peanut cv. ‘Margenta’ and its influence on seed quality

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Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) cv. ‘Margenta’ has been reported to have poor germination (10%) at harvest. Peanut is an indeterminate crop and the nature of the plant can result in pods of varying maturity at harvest, contributing to the low germination. Thus, this study considered the flowering pattern and seed development in relation to plant growth and development to understand the relationship between maturity stages and seed quality. Peanut plants were uprooted from 24 – 114 days after anthesis (DAA). Pod and seed characteristics were observed, the ability to germinate was tested, and maturity stages were proposed. The flowering pattern conformed to a bell shaped curve with the first flowering at 25 days after sowing (DAS), which continued until 106 DAS. Pod size was found to remain constant from 54 DAA onwards while embryos attained maximum size at 64 DAA. Physiological maturity occurred at 94 DAA, while the highest germination (66%) was recorded sometime prior to physiological maturity (PM) (32% germination), followed by the onset of dormancy. Hence, pods are recommended to be uprooted at 74 – 84 DAA, and only pods within 0.1 m of the main stem are recommended as seeds to ensure uniformity and high germination.
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Keywords: dormancy; groundnut; indeterminate plant; physiological maturity; seed germination; seed maturity

Affiliations: 1: Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia 2: Industrial Crops Research Centre, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Persiaran MARDI-UPM, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Appeared or available online: February 4, 2021

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