Reduced effects of carboxin on the barley loose smut pathogen Ustilago nuda
A survey of the loose smut frequencies in certified barley seed lots in Norway during 1997–2002 showed that the disease has become more prevalent and has occurred at higher infection frequencies in recent years. Laboratory analyses (embryo method) of barley seeds harvested in 2001 and 2002, including both certified and farm saved seed, showed a large number of infected seed lots with higher than expected infection frequencies. One lot of farm saved seed (cv. Otira) from 2002 had 32% seed infection. Unexpectedly high loose smut infection frequencies recorded in fields sown with carboxin treated barley seed suggest a reduced effectiveness of the fungicide. A seed treatment experiment was conducted in 2002 using both greenhouse and field trials with two infected seed lots (cv. Otira with 14.4% and cv. Fager with 6.9% infected seeds) to evaluate and compare the effect of Fungazil C (carboxin + imazalil) and Premis Robust (triticonazol + imazalil) against loose smut. Fungazil C at normal rates reduced loose smut frequencies by approximately 50% or less. At twice the normal rate, loose smut symptoms were reduced by 60-80%. Premis Robust showed more effective loose smut control, but did not confer complete control.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: April 1, 2006
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