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Open Access Compression Forensics Beyond The First Significant Digit

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We study characteristics of the second significant digits of block-DCT coefficients computed from digital images. Following previous works on compression forensics based on first significant digits, we examine the merits of stepping towards significant digits beyond the first. Our empirical findings indicate that certain block-DCT modes follow Benford's law of second significant digits extremely well, which allows us to distinguish between never-compressed images and decompressed JPEG images even for the highest JPEG compression quality of 100. As for multiple-compression forensics we report that second significant digit histograms are highly informative on their own, yet cannot further improve already good performances of classification schemes that work with first significant digits alone.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: February 14, 2016

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  • For more than 30 years, the Electronic Imaging Symposium has been serving those in the broad community - from academia and industry - who work on imaging science and digital technologies. The breadth of the Symposium covers the entire imaging science ecosystem, from capture (sensors, camera) through image processing (image quality, color and appearance) to how we and our surrogate machines see and interpret images. Applications covered include augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, machine vision, data analysis, digital and mobile photography, security, virtual reality, and human vision. IS&T began sole sponsorship of the meeting in 2016. All papers presented at EIs 20+ conferences are open access.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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