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Angular variations of reflectance and fluorescence from paper - the influence of fluorescent whitening agents and fillers

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It has earlier been shown that light reflected from the body of paper exhibit anisotropic behavior. On the other hand, fluorescence emission is often assumed to be distributed in a Lambertian manner. The angular behavior of light reflected and fluoresced from paper is examined using measurements from a spectral goniophotometer. The angular dependency of the radiance factors was measured for a range of excitation wavelengths. Moreover, the influence of fillers and fluorescent whitening agents (FWA) on the anisotropy was studied. The measurements show that the anisotropy of the total radiance factor of paper decreases when an increasing amount of FWA is added to the paper. The same effect was also observed when an increased amount of filler was added to the paper. In addition, it was shown that the presence of fillers reduce the effect of the FWA. The results show that in comparison to the anisotropy of the total radiance factor from the paper samples, the anisotropy of the fluorescence alone is negligible. Hence, for paper samples containing FWA evenly distributed in the bulk, the fluorescence alone should not induce significant differences between color measuring instruments of different measurement geometries.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 2012

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  • CIC is the premier annual technical gathering for scientists, technologists, and engineers working in the areas of color science and systems, and their application to color imaging. Participants represent disciplines ranging from psychophysics, optical physics, image processing, color science to graphic arts, systems engineering, and hardware and software development. While a broad mix of professional interests is the hallmark of these conferences, the focus is color. CICs traditionally offer two days of short courses followed by three days of technical sessions that include three keynotes, an evening lecture, a vibrant interactive (poster) papers session, and workshops. An endearing symbol of the meeting is the Cactus Award, given each year to the author(s) of the best interactive paper; there are also Best Paper and Best Student Paper awards.

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