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Citizenship education in Indonesia and Japan: A dynamic endeavour to form national character

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This study discusses a dynamic endeavour to form national character in citizenship education through a chronological exploration of the experiences of Japan and Indonesia within two dimensions: administration and curriculum. Nationalization, localization and internationalization perspectives were applied. Despite their striking differences in national character, both countries have envisioned a role for nationalism in their citizenship education curricula since the earliest stages. Given Indonesia’s heterogeneity, national character has transitioned over time from an independent-spiritual period to development and consolidation, democratic/local initiative, and religious-patriotism/national standardized. Japan’s more homogeneous national character has transitioned over a longer duration from a westernized/modernized period to Confucian/emperor-centred, democratic and peace building, public oriented, and love for country and region/re-patriotism. National character has changed dynamically according to national goals and priorities, reflecting the countries’ respective historical backgrounds. These aspects resulted in the unique national character of each country’s citizenship education, specifically concerning globalization.

Keywords: Indonesia; Japan; citizenship education; globalization; international education; national character

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 0000000087113200Hiroshima University

Publication date: March 1, 2020

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  • Citizenship Teaching and Learning is global in scope, exploring issues of social and moral responsibility, community involvement and political literacy. It advances academic and professional understandings within a broad characterisation of education, focussing on a wide range of issues including identity, diversity, equality and social justice within social, moral, political and cultural contexts.
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