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SOCIAL DEMOCRACY AND 'POSITIVE' FOREIGN POLICY: THE EVOLUTION OF EDUARD BERNSTEIN'S INTERNATIONAL THOUGHT, 1914-1920

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In the early twentieth century, European Social Democracy was confronted with newly-salient problems of foreign and international policy thanks to rising tensions between the European 'great powers'. Eduard Bernstein, founder of 'revisionist' Marxism, played an increasingly central part in the ensuing debates within the socialist movement. Yet his position on questions of colonialism, antiimperialism, militarism, pacifism and diplomacy has--like much of his later work-- been hitherto inadequately explored and often misunderstood. This article reevaluates Bernstein's foreign policy thought, and argues that the First World War provoked a profound shift in his views--expressed in texts that deserve wider recognition in the canon of socialist internationalism.
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Keywords: Eduard Bernstein; colonialism; diplomacy; foreign policy; imperialism; militarism; pacifism; social democracy; socialism

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute, Via dei Roccettini 9, IĆ¢–“50014 San Domenico di Fiesole (FI), Italy., Email: [email protected]

Publication date: January 1, 2021

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