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Open Access A new subfamily classification of the Leguminosae based on a taxonomically comprehensive phylogeny

The Legume Phylogeny Working Group (LPWG)

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The classification of the legume family proposed here addresses the long-known non-monophyly of the traditionally recognised subfamily Caesalpinioideae, by recognising six robustly supported monophyletic subfamilies. This new classification uses as its framework the most comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of legumes to date, based on plastid matK gene sequences, and including near-complete sampling of genera (698 of the currently recognised 765 genera) and ca. 20% (3696) of known species. The matK gene region has been the most widely sequenced across the legumes, and in most legume lineages, this gene region is sufficiently variable to yield well-supported clades. This analysis resolves the same major clades as in other phylogenies of whole plastid and nuclear gene sets (with much sparser taxon sampling). Our analysis improves upon previous studies that have used large phylogenies of the Leguminosae for addressing evolutionary questions, because it maximises generic sampling and provides a phylogenetic tree that is based on a fully curated set of sequences that are vouchered and taxonomically validated. The phylogenetic trees obtained and the underlying data are available to browse and download, facilitating subsequent analyses that require evolutionary trees. Here we propose a new community-endorsed classification of the family that reflects the phylogenetic structure that is consistently resolved and recognises six subfamilies in Leguminosae: a recircumscribed Caesalpinioideae DC., Cercidoideae Legume Phylogeny Working Group (stat. nov.), Detarioideae Burmeist., Dialioideae Legume Phylogeny Working Group (stat. nov.), Duparquetioideae Legume Phylogeny Working Group (stat. nov.), and Papilionoideae DC. The traditionally recognised subfamily Mimosoideae is a distinct clade nested within the recircum-scribed Caesalpinioideae and is referred to informally as the mimosoid clade pending a forthcoming formal tribal and/or clade-based classification of the new Caesalpinioideae. We provide a key for subfamily identification, descriptions with diagnostic charactertistics for the subfamilies, figures illustrating their floral and fruit diversity, and lists of genera by subfamily. This new classification of Leguminosae represents a consensus view of the international legume systematics community; it invokes both compromise and practicality of use.

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Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Plant Science, University of Tehran, Iran 2: Institut de Recherche en Biologie Végétale and Département de Sciences Biologiques, Université de Montréal, Canada 3: Department of Biology, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, U.S.A 4: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, U.K 5: Departamento Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Brazil 6: Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brazil 7: Department of Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa 8: Departamento de Botânica, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Brazil 9: School of BioSciences, University of Melbourne, Australia and Queensland Herbarium, Toowong, Australia 10: Institut de Recherche en Biologie Végétale and Département de Sciences Biologiques, Université de Montréal, Canada;, Email: [email protected] 11: Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Brazil 12: School of Forestry and Resource Conservation, National Taiwan University, Taiwan 13: Departamento de Educação, Campus VIII, Universidade do Estado da Bahia, Paulo Afonso, Brazil 14: Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Acton, Australia 15: Departamento de Biología Vegetal II, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain 16: Instituto de Biología – Botánica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México 17: School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, U.K 18: Plant Biology Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, U.S.A 19: Service Évolution Biologique et Écologie, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium 20: Department of Botany, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Washington D.C., U.S.A 21: Instituto de Pesquisas, Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 22: Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, U.K 23: Departamento de Botânica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil 24: Instituto de Recursos Biológicos, CIRN-INTA, CONICET & University of Morón, Buenos Aires, Argentina 25: Ciências Ambientais, Universidade Federal do Oeste da Bahia, Barreiras, Brazil 26: Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh, U.K 27: School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, U.K 28: Chicago Botanic Garden, Glencoe, Illinois, U.S.A 29: Department of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, University of Zurich, Switzerland 30: Departamento de Botânica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil 31: Institute of Decision Science for a Sustainable Society, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan 32: Department of Agriculture and Animal Health, University of South Africa, South Africa 33: Department of Plant Biology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran 34: Plant Sciences & Plant Pathology, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, U.S.A 35: South African National Biodiversity Institute, Silverton, South Africa and Department of Botany and Plant Biotechnology, University of Johannesburg, South Africa 36: Departamento de Biologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 37: Agrocampus-Ouest, INRA, Université d'Angers, France 38: Museo Cantonale di Storia Naturale, Lugano, Switzerland 39: Office of International Science and Engineering, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia, U.S.A 40: Department of Biology, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan 41: Missouri Botanical Garden, Saint Louis, Missouri, U.S.A 42: Plant Sciences and Biodiversity, Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria, Melbourne, Australia 43: Botánica, IICAR-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Zavalla, Argentina 44: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, U.S.A 45: Sistemática e Evolução, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil 46: Departamento de Botânica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Brazil 47: Embrapa Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, Brasília, Brazil 48: Department of Plant Sciences, University of Dundee, U.K 49: Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Arizona State University Polytechnic, Mesa, Arizona, U.S.A 50: School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, U.S.A 51: Department of Biological Sciences, Bolus Herbarium, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa 52: Institute of Systematic Botany, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York, U.S.A 53: Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, The Netherlands 54: Institute of Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology, Heidelberg University, Germany 55: Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

Publication date: 01 February 2017

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