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Phylogenetic structure and clade circumscriptions in the Gardenieae complex (Rubiaceae)

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In this study we investigate the large and diverse Rubiaceae-Gardenieae and closely related tribes Bertiereae, Coffeeae, Cremasporeae, Octotropideae, and Pavetteae. Some of the tribes or groups have been shown to be monophyletic and strongly supported, but the phylogeny of this large complex is still far from being satisfactorily elucidated particularly for Gardenieae, both in terms of intertribal relationships as well as tribal delimitations. We reconstruct the phylogeny of the complex using an extensive sampling of 108 genera and five plastid DNA regions. Phylogenetic relationships demonstrate that Gardenieae sensu Andreasen & Bremer is polyphyletic, as Burchellia, Didymosalpinx, Monosalpinx, and Mantalania are closer to Octotropideae-Cremasporeae. In addition, Pavetteae and the investigated members of Aulacocalyceae are nested in a supported but partially unresolved Gardenieae-Pavetteae clade. Within this clade, several strongly supported groups are resolved: an Aidia group, an Alibertia group, a Gardenia group, Pavetteae including Pelagodendron, a Porterandia group, a Randia group, a Rothmannia group (including Aulacocalyx and Heinsenia), a Sherbournia group, and the two isolated genera Massularia and Schumanniophyton. The latter genus presented a high rate of genetic substitutions, which resulted in perturbations of the phylogenetic reconstruction. A revised tribal circumscription is given for Gardenieae, the Alibertia group is recognized at tribal level as an emended Cordiereae, and a new tribe, Sherbournieae, is described to accommodate the members of the Sherbournia group.
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Keywords: AULACOCALYCEAE; CORDIEREAE; GARDENIEAE; MAPPING; MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY; OCTOTROPIDEAE; PAVETTEAE; RADIATION; RUBIACEAE; SHERBOURNIEAE

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: The Bergius Foundation, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden, Université de Franche-Comté—CNRS UMR 6249 Chrono-environnement, ESPE de Franche-Comté, 16 Route de Gray, 25030 Besançon cedex, France;, Email: [email protected] 2: The Bergius Foundation, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden 3: Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 461, 405 30, Göteborg, Sweden 4: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3AB, U.K. 5: Singapore Botanic Gardens, 1 Cluny Road, Singapore 259569

Publication date: 28 August 2014

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