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Open Access United States-led Philippine Guerrilla Organizations on Luzon and Mindanao

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The combined United States and Filipino conventional forces of the Philippines lost their battle against the Japanese invasion forces by June 1942. In the wake of defeat, American personnel found a place amongst the Filipino population as they continued to fight the Japanese occupation forces. The Americans assumed leadership positions of several budding guerrilla resistance movements, evolving them from local protection forces to province-spanning guerrilla organizations during the three years of occupation. These leaders' accomplishments reveal two very simple rules for guerrilla organizations: rapport and delegation of command are required to succeed. These organizations were developed and led without previous training in guerrilla warfare and structure. Yet each leader developed an approach to the overall problem of creating and maintaining their guerrilla movements. Each leader found that rapport with the local population had to be maintained to succeed and that subordinate leaders had to be given the freedom to operate without significant operational oversight. Today these principles appear self-evident, but at the beginning of World War II they were alien to the regular United States military forces.
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Keywords: guerrilla(s); LGAF; Luzon; Mindanao; Philippines; USAFIP-NL; USFIP

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: March 1, 2015

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  • Global War Studies (GWS) is the leading international peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the study of the Second World War, 1919-1945. GWS features articles and book reviews that explore a broad range of topics, including military, air power, naval, intelligence, and diplomatic history. Additionally, the journal publishes original research on weapons technology, geopolitics, home front studies, the Holocaust, resistance movements, and peacekeeping operations.
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