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Open Access Consumo alimentar e excesso de peso de adolescentes de Piracicaba, São Paulo Food consumption and overweight in adolescents from Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil

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OBJETIVO: Este estudo avaliou o consumo alimentar e a prevalência de excesso de peso entre adolescentes de Piracicaba, São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional transversal com amostra representativa de adolescentes maiores de 10 anos de 11 escolas públicas de Piracicaba. Realizou-se auto-avaliação da maturação sexual por planilhas dos estágios de Tanner. Pelo Questionário de Freqüência Alimentar Semi-Quantitativo, investigou-se o consumo de energia, macronutrientes, frutas, hortaliças e doces. Foram aferidos peso e altura para avaliação do perfil antropométrico pelos percentis de Índice de Massa Corporal e índice de altura-para-idade. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 390 adolescentes, com média de idade de 12,4 anos, sendo 46,4% meninos e 78,7% púberes. O consumo médio de energia foi de 3.645kcal (56,2%, 12,8% e 33,5% provenientes de carboidratos, proteínas e lipídios, respectivamente). Observou-se que 77,9% da amostra ingeria alto teor de gordura. O consumo médio de frutas, hortaliças e doces foi de 2,3, 2,4 e 4,5 porções diárias, respectivamente. Foi encontrado 21,0% de excesso de peso, 4,4% de baixo peso e 1,8% de déficit de altura-para-idade. CONCLUSÃO: Expressivo percentual de adolescentes apresentava reduzido consumo de frutas e hortaliças e consumo lipídico e de doces acima do recomendado, podendo haver relação com o elevado número de participantes com excesso de peso. Adolescentes devem ser alvo de programas que enfatizem a adoção de alimentação saudável, para diminuir risco e incidência de obesidade e prevenir futuros agravos à saúde.
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed food consumption and prevalence of overweight among adolescents from Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional with a representative sample of adolescents older than 10 years of 11 public schools of Piracicaba. The maturation stage of the adolescents was determined by self-examination using Tanner images. Intakes of energy, macronutrients, fruits, vegetables and sweets were determined with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Weight and height were measured to determine body mass index and height-for-age percentiles. RESULTS: Three-hundred ninety adolescents with a mean age of 12.4 years, 46.4% males and 78.7% pubescents were assessed. Mean energy intake was 3,645kcal (56.2%, 12.8% and 33.5% of carbohydrates, proteins and fats respectively). Most of the adolescents (77.9%) had excessive intake of dietary fat. The mean consumption of fruits, vegetables and sweets was 2.3, 2.4 and 4.5 portions per day, respectively. Twenty-one percent of the adolescents had overweight, 4.4% were underweight and 1.8% were stunted. CONCLUSION: A high percentage of adolescents consumed too little fruits and vegetables and too much lipids and sweets (above the recommended intakes), which may explain why many children had overweight. Programs that promote healthy eating should also target adolescents to reduce the risk and incidence of obesity and prevent future health problems.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 2007

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