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Open Access Acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity in carp brain and muscle after acute exposure to diafuran Atividade da enzima acetilcolinesterase em cérebro e músculo de carpas após exposição aguda ao diafuran

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Sublethal adverse effects may result from exposure of aquatic organisms to insecticides at environmentally relevant concentrations. Fingerlings of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Valenciennes, 1844), and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, Richardson, 1845) were exposed to diafuran, an insecticide widely used during rice cultivation in Southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between the lethal concentration (LC50) of diafuran and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in brain and muscle tissues of these species as a possible early biomarker of exposure to this insecticide. LC50 was determined for fish exposed to diafuran concentrations during 96 h (short term)&58; common carp&58; control, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 mg L-1&59; grass carp&58; control, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 3.5 mg L-1 and, bighead carp&58; control, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mg L-1, as well as the determination of AChE at concentrations near LC50 for these species. LC50 values (nominal concentrations) were 1.81 mg L-1 for the common carp, 2.71 mg L-1 for the grass carp and, 2.37 mg L-1 for the bighead carp. All carps exposed to diafuran were lethargic (lower concentrations) or immobile. Diafuran inhibited the acetylcholinesterase activity in brain (&126;38%) and muscle (&126;50%) of all species. Muscle of bighead carp under control treatment showed higher specific AChE activity than brain (14.44 against 5.94 µmol min-1 g protein-1, respectively). Concentrations of diafuran used for rice cropping may affect Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Aristichthys nobilis behaviors and the AChE activities in brain and muscle of these species may be an early biomarker of toxicity of this insecticide.&60;br&62;Exposição a inseticidas em concentrações elevadas no ambiente podem ocasionar efeitos adversos subletais em organismos aquáticos. Alevinos de carpa húngara (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758), carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Valenciennes, 1844) e carpa cabeça grande (Aristichthys nobilis, Richardson, 1845) foram expostos ao diafuran, um inseticida utilizado na cultura do arroz no sul do Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a relação entre concentração letal mediana (CL50) do diafuran e a atividade da enzima acetilcolinesterase (AChE) em cérebro e músculo dessas espécies, como um possível biomarcador inicial da exposição a este inseticida. A CL50 foi determinada com peixes expostos a concentrações de diafuran em 96 h&58; carpa húngara&58; controle&59; 0,5&59; 1,0&59; 1,5&59; 2,0&59; 2,5 e 3,0 mg L-1&59; carpa capim&58; controle&59; 1,0&59; 2,0&59; 3,0 e 3,5 mg L-1 e carpa cabeça grande&58; controle&59; 0,5&59; 1,0&59; 1,5&59; 2,0&59; 3,0 e 4,0 mg L-1, bem como a determinação da AChE em concentrações próximas da CL50 para essas espécies. Valores de CL50 (concentrações nominais) foram de 1,81 mg L-1 para carpa húngara, 2,71 mg L-1 para carpa capim e 2,37 mg L-1 para carpa cabeça grande. Todas as carpas expostas ao diafuran estavam letárgicas (menores concentrações) ou imóveis. Diafuran inibiu significativamente a atividade da AChE em cérebro (&126;38 %) e músculo (&126;50 %) de todas as espécies estudadas. Atividade da AChE em músculo para carpa cabeça grande foi mais alta que cérebro (14,44 contra 5,94 µmol min-1 g proteína-1, respectivamente). Este estudo demonstrou que concentrações de diafuran utilizadas na cultura do arroz podem afetar o comportamento de Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idella e Aristichthys nobilis, e a atividade da acetilcolinesterase cerebral e muscular pode ser um biomarcador inicial de toxicidade deste inseticida.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 2008

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