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Open Access Water erosion under simulated rainfall in different soil management systems during soybean growth Erosão hídrica sob chuva simulada em diferentes sistemas de manejo do solo durante o crescimento da soja

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Soil management influences soil cover by crop residues and plant canopy, affecting water erosion. The objective of this research was to quantify water and soil losses by water erosion under different soil tillage systems applied on a typical aluminic Hapludox soil, in an experiment carried out from April 2003 to May 2004, in the Santa Catarina highland region, Lages, southern Brazil. Simulated rainfall was applied during five soybean cropstages, at the constant intensity of 64.0 mm h-1. Treatments were replicated twice and consisted of&58; i) conventional tillage on bare soil - control treatment (CTBS), ii) conventional tillage on cultivated soil (CTCS), iii) no-tillage on non tilled soil with burned crop residue (NTRB), iv) no-tillage in non tilled soil with crop residue desiccated (NTRD), and v) no-tillage on four-years interrupted soil tillage with crop residue desiccated - "traditional no tillage" (NTRT). Regardless of soybean cropstages, water losses were the highest for the CTCS than for the untilled soils, while soil losses were considerably higher in the CTCS treatment only until cropstage 3, in cultivated soil treatments. The NTRT was most effective treatment in terms of both water and soil loss reduction. Water infiltration should also be considered, when considering the soil erosion process caused by rainfall and its associated runoff, due to the management systems usually adopted in cultivated fields.&60;br&62;O manejo do solo influencia a cobertura superficial pelo resíduo cultural e, juntamente com a cobertura do solo pela copa das plantas, afeta a erosao hídrica. O objetivo do estudo foi quantificar as perdas de água e solo por erosão hídrica em diferentes sistemas de manejo do solo, em diferentes estádios do cultivo da soja, em um experimento conduzido de abril de 2003 a maio de 2004, na região do Planalto Catarinense, em um Nitossolo Háplico alumínico. Chuvas simuladas foram aplicadas em cinco estádios do cultivo da soja, com intensidade constante de 64 mm h-1. Os tratamentos, em duas repetições, consistiram de&58; i) preparo convencional sem cultivo do solo - tratamento testemunha (SC)&59; ii) preparo convencional com cultivo do solo (PC)&59; iii) semeadura direta sobre resíduo cultural queimado, em solo nunca preparado (SQ)&59; iv) semeadura direta sobre resíduo cultural dessecado, em solo nunca preparado (SD)&59; e v) semeadura direta sobre resíduo cultural dessecado, em solo preparado quatro anos antes, denominada semeadura direta tradicional (ST). Independentemente dos estágios da soja, as perdas de água foram maiores no tratamento PC do que nos sem preparo do solo, enquanto as perdas de solo foram consideravelmente maiores no tratamento PC somente no estágio 3, nos tratamentos de solo cultivado. O ST foi o tratamento mais eficaz no estudo, em termos de redução das perdas de água e solo. Em se tratando da relação da erosão hídrica do solo com sistemas de manejo usualmente empregados nas lavouras, outras variáveis, deveriam ser consideradas, tais como a infiltração de água no solo.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 2007

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