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Open Access Perfil epidemiológico de trauma abdominal submetido à laparotomia exploradora Epidemiologic profile of abdominal trauma submitted to laporotomy

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RACIONAL: No Brasil, no ano de 2004, a mortalidade por causas externas representaram 12,4% do total de óbitos, ou seja, 124.470 óbitos. O trauma abdominal está presente entre 13% e15% de todos os acidentes fatais e contribui para mortes tardias por sepse. OBJETIVO: Descrever o perfil epidemiológico dos indivíduos com trauma abdominal que foram submetidos à laparotomia exploradora no período de 2003 a 2006. MÉTODOS: Estudo com delineamento transversal, descritivo e retrospectivo. A base para a coleta de informações foi de 185 indivíduos referentes a todos os traumas abdominais, submetidos à laparotomia exploradora, no período de 2003 a 2006. As variáveis estudadas foram: gênero, idade, meses do ano, causas de trauma, estruturas afetadas, tempo de internação, evolução, causas de óbito, traumatismo associados. RESULTADOS: O gênero prevalente é masculino, com 87%; a faixa etária mais freqüente foi a de 20 a 29 anos, com 44,3% do total; o ferimento por arma de fogo foi a principal causa, representando 51,9%; a causa de óbito mais freqüente foi choque hipovolêmico, 47%; das lesões extra-abdominais associadas a que mais prevaleceu foi o trauma torácico com 22,2%. CONCLUSÃO: O sexo que predominou foi o masculino; a faixa etária predominante foi a terceira década; a causa principal foi o ferimento por arma de fogo; os órgãos mais afetados foram o intestino delgado, fígado e baço.
BACKGROUND: In Brazil, in the year of 2004, mortality by external causes represented 12,4% of the total deaths, corresponding to, 124.470 deaths. Abdominal trauma is present in 13%-15% of all fatal accidents and, not surprisingly, contributes in a significant way to the late deaths by sepsis. AIM: To describe the epidemiological profile of individuals who suffered abdominal trauma and were submitted to laparotomy treatment, at the HRSJ-HMG, within the period of 2003 to 2006. METHODS: The present investigation is constituted of a study with transversal delineation, descriptive and retrospective in 185 individuals, having as a basis the information collecting referring to all the abdominal traumas, submitted to laparotomy treatment, occurred between the periods of 2003 to 2006, based on data from the HRSJ-HMG. RESULTS: The most frequent gender was the male one, which prevailed in 87% (161), being most of the individuals in the age group of 20 to 29 years old 44,3% (82) of the total; firearm injury was the main cause of abdominal trauma, representing 51,9%(96); the most frequent death cause was hypovolemic shock 47% (6); from the associated extra-abdominal lesions, the one that prevailed was the thoracic trauma with 22,2% (41). CONCLUSION: This study showed that the most frequent gender was the male one, the most frequent age group was from 20 to 29 years old, being the main cause firearm injury. The most affected structures were the small intestine, liver and spleen. Most of the patients remained hospitalized within a period of one to five days and are discharged without intercurrences.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 2007

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