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Open Access Terapias cognitivo-comportamentais, terapias cognitivas e técnicas comportamentais para o transtorno de ansiedade social Cognitive behavioral-therapies, cognitive therapies and behavioral strategies for the treatment of social anxiety disorder

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CONTEXTO: Pacientes com transtorno de ansiedade social respondem de forma distinta a diferentes tipos de terapias cognitivas e/ou comportamentais, o que motiva a avaliação das melhores técnicas para o tratamento desse transtorno. OBJETIVO: Realizar uma revisão sistemática de estudos controlados que avaliaram a eficácia das técnicas cognitivo e/ ou comportamentais na redução do transtorno de ansiedade social. MÉTODO: Análise sistemática de ensaios clínicos randomizados indexados nas seguintes bases de dados: PubMed/MedLine, PsycINFO, Registro Cochrane de Ensaios Controlados, LILACS, ISI/Web of Science e em artigos relacionados. RESULTADOS: Não se encontrou consenso sobre a eficácia da associação da terapia cognitiva com técnicas comportamentais. Novas técnicas (tratamento por realidade virtual, tarefa de casa via computador e autoterapia com assistência terapêutica) demonstraram ser tão eficazes quanto aquelas utilizadas na terapia cognitivo-comportamental (TCC) padrão. A associação da TCC com evitação de comportamentos de segurança e com o treino de habilidades sociais apresentou vantagem adicional em relação ao modelo convencional. Entre as técnicas comportamentais, o treino em tarefa de concentração e a exposição foram as estratégias mais eficazes. O tratamento individual foi mais efetivo do que em grupo e o modelo de sessões semanais foi mais eficaz do que sessões no mínimo quinzenais. CONCLUSÃO: Os estudos avaliados confirmaram que tanto técnicas cognitivas quanto comportamentais (convencionais e inovadoras) são eficazes no tratamento do transtorno de ansiedade social.
BACKGROUND: Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) exhibit distinctive patterns of response to different types of cognitive and/or behavioral treatment. Therefore, it is imperative to assess the best techniques used for the treatment of this disorder. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to perform a systematic review of controlled studies that evaluated the efficacy of cognitive and/or behavioral techniques on the treatment of SAD. METHOD: A systematic analysis of randomized clinical trials indexed in the following databases was made: PubMed/MedLine, PsycINFO, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, LILACS, ISI Web of Science, and related articles. RESULTS: No consensus on the efficacy of associating cognitive and behavioral therapies was found. Novel techniques (such as virtual reality, bycomputerhomework,and self therapy with therapeuticassistance) werefoundto be as effectiveasstandardcognitivebehavioral therapy (CBT). The association of CBT with the avoidance of safety behaviors, as well as with social skills training was associated with an additional advantage. As for behavioral therapy, focus training and exposure therapy were considered to be the most effective techniques. Further, individual treatment was more effective than group therapy, and weekly sessions were associated with better results than those occurring at least every other week. DISCUSSION: Both cognitive and behavioral (standard and innovative) therapies are effective for treating social phobia.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 2009

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