Eksperimentalne metode ispitivanja katalizatora
Catalysis plays a critical role in virtually every industry. Often it is the key to making an entirely new technology or breathing new life into otherwise, mature technology. In addition to continued needs for productivity improvements, efficient use of energy and raw materials, minimal impacton the environment, and heightened industrial safety add a new aspect to the importance of catalytic innovation. In the development of catalysts various stages can be distinguished. This development process cover the whole range from the new idea for a process or catalyst via the catalyst preparation, catalyst screening, establishing reaction networks, kinetic studies, and life tests to scale up on pilotplant level, before a new or modified process is introduced. The first step in the engineering of a newly discovered catalyst is to quantify the phenomena that govern its performance. These fall into two broad categories: transport phenomena (i. e. heat, mass, and momentum transfer) and reaction kinetics. The paper presents correlations that describe these phenomena, along with guidance for obtaining, from experimental data, the values for the constants in the correlating equations. Various types of laboratory reactors for catalyst testing, in order to obtain the relevant information withregard to intrinsic activity, selectivity, deactivation, is also described.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: January 1, 2006