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External Tonehole Interactions in Woodwind Instruments


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The classical Transfer-Matrix Method (TMM) is often used to calculate the input impedance of woodwind instruments. However, the TMM ignores the possible influence of the radiated sound from toneholes on other open holes. In this paper a method is proposed to account for external tonehole interactions. We describe the TransferMatrix Method with external Interaction (TMMI) and then compare results using this approach with the Finite Element Method (FEM) and TMM, as well as with experimental data. It is found that the external tonehole interactions increase the amount of radiated energy, reduce slightly the lower resonance frequencies, and modify significantly the response near and above the tonehole lattice cutoff frequency. In an appendix, a simple perturbation of the TMM to account for external interactions is investigated, though it is found to be inadequate at low frequencies and for holes spaced far apart.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: November 1, 2013

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  • Acta Acustica united with Acustica, published together with the European Acoustics Association (EAA), is an international, peer-reviewed journal on acoustics. It publishes original articles on all subjects in the field of acoustics, such as general linear acoustics, nonlinear acoustics, macrosonics, flow acoustics, atmospheric sound, underwater sound, ultrasonics, physical acoustics, structural acoustics, noise control, active control, environmental noise, building acoustics, room acoustics, acoustic materials, acoustic signal processing, computational and numerical acoustics, hearing, audiology and psychoacoustics, speech, musical acoustics, electroacoustics, auditory quality of systems. It reports on original scientific research in acoustics and on engineering applications. The journal considers scientific papers, technical and applied papers, book reviews, short communications, doctoral thesis abstracts, etc. In irregular intervals also special issues and review articles are published.
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