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Open Access Socioeconomic, environmental, and geographic factors and US lung cancer mortality, 1999‐2009

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Background: The American Cancer Society estimates that about 25% of all US cancer deaths will be due to lung cancer ‐ more than from cancers of the colon, breast, and prostate combined.

Methods: We ascertained county-level age-adjusted and age-specific death rates and 95% confidence intervals from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Compressed Mortality File. Multiple regression analyses were used to estimate the strength and direction of relationships between county poverty, smoking, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution, and US Census divisions and race- and sex-specific lung cancer deaths.

Results: Poverty, smoking, and particulate matter air pollution were positively and significantly related to lung cancer deaths among white men, but of these, only poverty and smoking were significantly associated with lung cancer deaths among white women. Residence in the South Atlantic, East South Central, and West South Central US Census divisions at the time of death was significantly associated with lung cancer deaths for both white men and white women. As with white men, poverty and smoking were associated with lung cancer deaths among black men, but of these, only adult smoking had a statistically significant association among black women.

Conclusions: The results support the need for further research, particularly in high-risk areas, to better differentiate factors specific to race and sex and to understand the impact of local risk factors.
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Keywords: Lung cancer; environmental; geographic; hot spot; mortality; risk factors

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Family and Community Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA 2: Sociology Department, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN, USA 3: Department of Family and Community Medicine, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN, USA 4: Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA 5: Department of Political Science, Texas Tech University College of Arts and Sciences, Lubbock, TX, USA

Publication date: May 1, 2017

This article was made available online on April 28, 2017 as a Fast Track article with title: "Socioeconomic, environmental, and geographic factors and US lung cancer mortality, 1999–2009".

More about this publication?
  • Family Medicine and Community Health (FMCH) is an open-access journal focusing on subjects that are common and relevant to family medicine/general practice and community health. The journal publishes relevant content across disciplines such as epidemiology, public health, social and preventive medicine, research and evidence based medicine, community health service, patient education and health promotion and health ethics. The journal has a specific focus on the management of chronic illness particularly diabetes, ischaemic heart disease, chronic heart failure, hypertension, bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive airways disease and common mental illness. FMCH is published by Compuscript on behalf of the Chinese General Practice Press

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