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Open Access Mediastinal Tuberculoma Mimicking Malignant Cardiac Tumor: A Case Report

This article is Open Access under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY-NC licence.

Background: The clinical manifestations of cardiac masses are diverse and lack specificity. Here we report a cardiac mass detected by transthoracic echocardiography. Multimodality imaging and pathological findings after the operation confirmed the mass as mediastinal tuberculoma.

Case presentation: A 45-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital reporting chest tightness, weight loss, and dyspnea for 3 months after exercise. Transthoracic echocardiography showed that there were a large number of pericardial effusions and a soft tissue mass measuring 7.7 cm × 4.5 cm in the upper mediastinum, which oppressed the right pulmonary artery and accelerated the blood flow of the left pulmonary artery. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography showed degenerative inhomogeneous high enhancement of and an unclear boundary in the mass. Contrast-enhanced chest CT revealed punctate and patchy calcification in and uneven enhancement of the mass and the lymph nodes around the aortic arch. The mass was diagnosed as a malignant mediastinal tumor. Pathological analysis of the mass revealed chronic granulomatous tuberculosis. The symptoms abated significantly after antituberculosis treatment. The patient remained asymptomatic during follow-up.

Conclusion: This report presents a rare case of mediastinal tuberculoma mimicking a malignant cardiac tumor. Multimodality imaging should be incorporated for differentiation of cardiac masses.

Keywords: Cardiac tumor; Modality imaging; contrast-enhanced ultrasonography; mediastinal tuberculoma

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Ultrasound, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China 2: Department of Cardiology, Center for Translational Medicine, Institute of Precision Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China

Publication date: May 1, 2021

This article was made available online on September 24, 2020 as a Fast Track article with title: "Mediastinal Tuberculoma Mimicking Malignant Cardiac Tumor: A Case Report".

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  • Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications (CVIA) publishes focused articles and original clinical research that explore novel developments in cardiovascular disease, effective control and rehabilitation in cardiovascular disease, and promote cardiovascular innovations and applications for the betterment of public health globally. The journal publishes basic research that has clinical applicability in order to promote timely communication of the latest insights relating to coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmia, prevention of cardiovascular disease with a heavy emphasis on risk factor modification. Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications is the official journal of the Great Wall International Congress of Cardiology (GW-ICC). It aims to continue the work of the GW-ICC by providing a global scientific communication platform for cardiologists that bridges East and West.

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