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Open Access Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease in Women

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This article is Open Access under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY-NC licence.

Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a common chronic disorder that affects 5‐10% of the US population with a higher prevalence in men compared to women by 2:1 in population studies. By contrast, in patients with cardiovascular disease, its prevalence can exceed 50% depending on the specific disorder surveyed. Although sex differences have been well described for cardiovascular risk factors; existing data regarding the impact of sex on the relationship between OSA and cardiovascular outcomes is controversial. Similarly, while there is strong evidence for increased prevalence of cardiovascular conditions, such as systemic hypertension, atrial fibrillation, as well as heart failure amongst patients suffering from OSA; conflicting evidence exists regarding the incidence and bidirectional relationship between them as well as the impact of treatment of OSA on cardiovascular outcomes. In this paper, we will review the associations between OSA and cardiovascular diseases in women. The data on sex differences is limited, due to a number of reasons, including, but not limited to late presentation of OSA in women, difficulties in diagnosing both OSA and cardiovascular diseases in women and still suboptimal inclusion of adequate number of women in clinical trials. More studies are needed to better delineate sex differences in the clinical presentation as well as the pathophysiology of the associations between OSA and cardiovascular diseases so that we can provide patients with more personalized care.
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Keywords: atrial fibrillation; cardiovascular; heart failure; hypertension; obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); sex; women

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: February 1, 2019

This article was made available online on January 16, 2019 as a Fast Track article with title: "Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease in Women".

More about this publication?
  • Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications (CVIA) publishes focused articles and original clinical research that explore novel developments in cardiovascular disease, effective control and rehabilitation in cardiovascular disease, and promote cardiovascular innovations and applications for the betterment of public health globally. The journal publishes basic research that has clinical applicability in order to promote timely communication of the latest insights relating to coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmia, prevention of cardiovascular disease with a heavy emphasis on risk factor modification. Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications is the official journal of the Great Wall International Congress of Cardiology (GW-ICC). It aims to continue the work of the GW-ICC by providing a global scientific communication platform for cardiologists that bridges East and West.

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