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Open Access Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: Time to Revisit the Stiff Heart

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This article is Open Access under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY-NC licence.

In the current era of cardiovascular disease, the diagnosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a well-recognized clinical entity that is equally prevalent but distinctly different from heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Despite normal EF patients with this disease have similar morbidity and mortality rates compared with HFrEF, as well as a rising rate of hospitalizations. The pathophysiology of HFpEF is incompletely understood. The number of therapies with proven efficacy at improving longterm cardiovascular outcomes is limited. Women with heart failure syndromes, particularly the elderly, are much more likely to have a HFpEF phenotype at the time of their diagnosis. The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, and current management strategies in HFpEF, especially as it pertains to women.
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Keywords: epidemiology; heart failure; mortality; pathophysiology; sex differences; women

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: February 1, 2019

More about this publication?
  • Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications (CVIA) publishes focused articles and original clinical research that explore novel developments in cardiovascular disease, effective control and rehabilitation in cardiovascular disease, and promote cardiovascular innovations and applications for the betterment of public health globally. The journal publishes basic research that has clinical applicability in order to promote timely communication of the latest insights relating to coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmia, prevention of cardiovascular disease with a heavy emphasis on risk factor modification. Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications is the official journal of the Great Wall International Congress of Cardiology (GW-ICC). It aims to continue the work of the GW-ICC by providing a global scientific communication platform for cardiologists that bridges East and West.

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