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Open Access Challenges in Cardiovascular Risk Prediction and Stratification in Women

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This article is Open Access under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY-NC licence.

There has been an appropriate focus, since the turn of the 21st century, on sex- and gender-specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) as increasing evidence suggests that there are substantial differences in the risk factor profile, social and environmental factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of ischemic heart disease in women compared with men. As a result of increased awareness, detection, and treatment of ischemic heart disease in women, there has been significant reduction (greater than 30%) in cardiovascular mortality, and in 2013, more US men than US women died of CVD. Nevertheless, continued efforts are required as CVD remains the leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and death of women in the Western world, and in women younger than 55 years there has been a rise in cardiovascular mortality. In this article, we review several of the contributing factors that continue to cause challenges in accurate risk prediction and risk stratification in women.
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Keywords: ischemic heart disease; risk prediction; risk stratification; sex and gender disparity

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: February 1, 2019

This article was made available online on January 16, 2019 as a Fast Track article with title: "Challenges in Cardiovascular Risk Prediction and Stratification in Women".

More about this publication?
  • Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications (CVIA) publishes focused articles and original clinical research that explore novel developments in cardiovascular disease, effective control and rehabilitation in cardiovascular disease, and promote cardiovascular innovations and applications for the betterment of public health globally. The journal publishes basic research that has clinical applicability in order to promote timely communication of the latest insights relating to coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmia, prevention of cardiovascular disease with a heavy emphasis on risk factor modification. Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications is the official journal of the Great Wall International Congress of Cardiology (GW-ICC). It aims to continue the work of the GW-ICC by providing a global scientific communication platform for cardiologists that bridges East and West.

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