In this study, we explored the effect of aqueous extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos (AM) on hepatic carbohydrate metabolism and insulin downstream signalling in rats given fructose (15%) in drinking water from weaning to adulthood. Wistar albino rats (4 weeks old) were randomly
divided into normal control (NC), fructose control (FC), and treatment (AMT) groups and were fed for a period of 8 weeks the following diets: chow + water, chow + fructose (15%), and chow + fructose (15%) + AM (500 mg/kg per day, p.o.), respectively. Compared with the NC group, the FC group
was found to have significantly (p < 0.05) raised levels of fasting blood glucose, lipid, visceral mass, plasma insulin and leptin, glycogen, and gluconeogenesis enzyme but decreased glycolytic enzyme activity. Raised levels of glucose transporter 2 protein but decreased activity
of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K/Akt) and Janus kinase – signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (JAK–STAT3) in hepatic tissue indicate a state of insulin and leptin resistance in the FC group. A significant (p < 0.05) lowering of physical and glycemic
parameters, strengthening of the hepatic glycolytic pathway over the gluconeogenic pathway, and upregulation of the PI3K/Akt and JAK–STAT3 pathways was observed in the AMT group, as compared with the FC group. For the first time, the mechanism underlying the development of insulin resistance
syndrome is delineated here, along with the potential of A.
marmelos to impede it.
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