Hesperidin protects against cyclophosphamide-induced hepatotoxicity by upregulation of PPARγ and abrogation of oxidative stress and inflammation
The most important reason for the non-approval and withdrawal of drugs by the Food and Drug Administration is hepatotoxicity. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effects of hesperidin against cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. The rats received a single intraperitoneal dose of CYP of 200 mg/kg body mass, followed by treatment with hesperidin, orally, at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg for 11 consecutive days. CYP induced hepatic damage, as evidenced by the significantly elevated levels of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines, serum transaminases, liver lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide. As a consequence, there was reduced glutathione content, and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were markedly reduced. In addition, CYP administration induced a considerable downregulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and upregulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression. Hesperidin, in a dose-dependent manner, rejuvenated the altered markers to an almost normal state. In conclusion, hesperidin showed a potent protective effect against CYP-induced oxidative stress and inflammation leading to hepatotoxicity. The study suggests that hesperidin exerts its protective effect against CYP-induced hepatotoxicity through upregulation of hepatic PPARγ expression and abrogation of inflammation and oxidative stress.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: January 1, 2014
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