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Cardioprotective and antihypertensive effects of Enicostemma littorale Blume extract in fructose-fed rats

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We investigated the protective effects of Enicostemma littorale Blume (EL) extract on hypertension and insulin resistance along with its associated cardiovascular complications in high fructose (HF) fed rats. For this, rats were divided among 4 groups: (i) control, fed laboratory chow; (ii) fed with a high level of fructose; (iii) fed with a high level of fructose plus E. littorale extract; and (iv) fed with a high level of fructose plus rosiglitazone (Rg). EL and Rg treatments were given simultaneously with HF diet. The results show that untreated HF-fed rats showed altered oral glucose tolerance, increased fasting insulin, and increased fasting glucose. These rats also exhibited hypertriglyceridemia, moderate hypertension, platelet hyperaggregability, decreased prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, altered vascular reactivity, and increased serum levels of enzymes (creatine kinase, type muscle–brain (CK-MB), aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alanine aminotransferase (SGPT). This is the first demonstration of platelet hyperaggregation and prothrombotic alteration in HF-fed rats. HF-fed rats treated with EL showed improved insulin resistance, along with reduced hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, platelet aggregability, blood coagulation, serum enzymes (CK-MB, SGOT, LDH and SGPT), and vascular reactivity. These effects of EL in HF-induced hypertensive rats might be associated with the suppression of hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia, along with its antiatherogenic and antithrombogenic potential. These data indicate that the aqueous extract of EL has great therapeutic potential for the prevention and (or) management of insulin resistance and the associated hypertension.
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Keywords: atherosclerosis; athérosclérose; cardiovasculaire; cardiovascular; diabetes; diabète; hypertension; insulin resistance; résistance à l’insuline

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, The M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat 390002, India. 2: Sun Pharma Advanced Research Company (SPARC Ltd.), F.P No. 27, Part Survey No. 27, C.S No.1050, Village of Tandalja, Baroda, Gujarat 390 020, India. 3: Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390001, India. 4: Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, St. Boniface Research Centre and Department of Physiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R2H 2A6, Canada.

Publication date: August 10, 2012

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