Regulation of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase and calsequestrin gene expression in the heart
The precise control of Ca2+ levels during the contraction–relaxation cycle in cardiac myocytes is extremely important for normal beat-to-beat contractile activity. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) plays a key role controlling calcium concentration in the cytosol. The SR Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2) transports Ca2+ inside the SR lumen during relaxation of the cardiac myocyte. Calsequestrin (Casq2) is the main protein in the SR lumen, functioning as a Ca2+ buffer and participating in Ca2+ release by interacting with the ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) Ca2+-release channel. Alterations in normal Ca2+ handling significantly contribute to the contractile dysfunction observed in cardiac hypertrophy and in heart failure. Transcriptional regulation of the SERCA2 gene has been extensively studied and some of the mechanisms regulating its expression have been elucidated. Overexpression of Sp1 factor in cardiac hypertrophy downregulates SERCA2 gene expression and increased levels of thyroid hormone up-regulates its transcription. Other hormones such norepinephrine, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, parathyroid hormone, prostaglandin-F2α, as well the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 also downregulate SERCA2 expression. Calcium acting through the calcineurin–NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) pathway has been suggested to regulate SERCA2 and CASQ2 gene expression. This review focuses on the current knowledge regarding transcriptional regulation of SERCA2 and CASQ2 genes in the normal and pathologic heart.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: August 10, 2012
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