A previous study reported that ginsenoside-Rd reduced the production of tumor necrosis factor-α by inhibiting nuclear factor-κB in lipopolysaccharide-activated N9 microglia in vitro. The aim of the present study was to confirm the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms
of ginsenoside-Rd in animal experiments involving acute inflammation. The results indicated that ginsenoside-Rd at doses ranging from 12.5 to 50 mg/kg i.m. significantly inhibited the swelling of hind paws in rats for 1–6 h after the carrageenan injection. The levels of proinflammatory
cytokines and proinflammatory mediators were markedly reduced by ginsenoside-Rd. Ginsenoside-Rd, when administered intramuscularly at 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg doses, showed signicant inhibition of carrageenan-induced production of interleukin-1β (6.91%, 45.75%, and 55.18%, respectively),
tumor necrosis factor-α (37.99%, 56.39%, and 47.38%, respectively), prostaglandin E2 (22.92%, 30.12%, and 36.36%, respectively), and nitric oxide (28.27%, 44.53%, and 53.42%, respectively). In addition, ginsenoside-Rd (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg i.m.) effectively decreased
the levels of nuclear factor-κB (6.77%, 20.28%, and 41.03%, respectively) and phosphorylation of IκBα (13.23%, 26.92%, and 41.80%, respectively) in the carrageenan-inflamed paw tissues. These results suggest that ginsenoside-Rd has significant anti-inflammatory effects in
vivo, which might be due to its blocking of the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway. Thus, it may be possible to develop ginsenoside-Rd as a useful agent for inflammatory diseases.
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phosphorylation de IκBα;
phosphorylation of IκBα;
Document Type: Research Article
Key Laboratory of Preclinical Study for New Drugs of Gansu Province, Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, P.R. China.
Department of Urology Surgery, the Second Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, P.R. China.
Department of Pharmacy, the First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, P.R. China.
Publication date: February 20, 2012
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