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Physiology and pathophysiology of nitrosative and oxidative stress in osteoarthritic joint destruction

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Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common chronic diseases, with increasing importance due to increased life expectancy. On a cellular level, the pathophysiology of joint function impairment and ultimate destruction associated with OA remains poorly understood. Free radicals are highly reactive molecules involved in both normal intracellular signal transduction and degenerative cellular processes. An imbalance between the free radical burden and cellular scavenging mechanisms, defined as oxidative stress, has been identified as a relevant factor in OA pathogenesis. This literature review elucidates the involvement of nitrosative and oxidative stress in cellular ageing in joints, cell senescence, and apoptosis. Free radical exposure is known to promote cellular senescence and apoptosis, and the involvement of radical oxygen species (ROS) in inflammation, fibrosis control, and pain nociception has been proven. A relatively novel approach to OA pathophysiology considers the joint to be a dynamic system consisting of 3, continuously interacting compartments, cartilage, synovial tissue, and subchondral bone. Current knowledge concerning free radical involvement in paracrine signalling in OA is reviewed. The interrelationship between oxidative imbalances and OA pathophysiology may provide a novel approach to the comprehension, and therefore modification, of OA disease progression and symptom control.
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Keywords: ageing; altération des radicaux libres; apoptose; apoptosis; cartilage; cellular senescence; dégénérescence des articulations; free radical damage; joint degeneration; monoxyde d’azote; nitric oxide; osteoarthritis; ostéoarthrite; oxidative stress; stress oxydatif; sénescence cellulaire; vieillissement

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Orthopedic Department, Heinrich-Heine University Medical School, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Düsseldorf, Germany. 2: Department of Molecular and Cellular Sport Medicine, German Sport University, Carl-Diem-Weg 6, D-50933 Cologne, Germany.

Publication date: July 27, 2011

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