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Order or chaos? An evaluation of the regulation of protein kinase CK2

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CK2 is a highly conserved, ubiquitously expressed protein serine/threonine kinase present in all eukaryotes. Circumscribed as having a vast array of substrates located in a number of cellular compartments, CK2 has been implicated in critical cellular processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and transformation. Despite advances in elucidating its substrates and involvement in cellular regulation, its precise mode of regulation remains poorly defined. In this respect, there are currently conflicting views as to whether CK2 is constitutively active or modulated in response to specific stimuli. Perhaps an important consideration in resolving these apparent discrepancies is recognition of the existence of many discrete CK2 subpopulations that are distinguished from one another by localization or association with distinct cellular components. The existence of these subpopulations brings to light the possibility of each population being regulated independently rather than the entire cellular CK2 content being regulated globally. Logically, each local population may then be regulated in a distinct manner to carry out its precise function(s). This review will examine those mechanisms including regulated expression and assembly of CK2 subunits, phosphorylation of CK2, and interactions with small molecules or cellular proteins that could contribute to the local regulation of distinct CK2 populations.Key words: protein kinase CK2, regulation, phosphorylation, protein-protein interactions, HIKE domains, regulatory interactions, CKIP-1, signal transduction.

La CK2 est une sérine/thréonine kinase hautement conservée, exprimée de façon ubiquiste, présente chez tous les eucaryotes. Rattachée à un large spectre de substrats localisés dans divers compartiments cellulaires, la CK2 a été impliquée dans des processus cellulaires critiques comme la prolifération, l'apoptose, la différenciation et la transformation. Malgré les progrès réalisés dans l'élucidation de la nature de ses substrats et son implication dans la régulation cellulaire, son mode de régulation précis demeure peu défini. À ce sujet, il existe des points de vue conflictuels à savoir si la CK2 est constitutivement active ou si elle est modulée en réponse à différents stimuli. Il est possible qu'une considération importante permettant de résoudre ces contradictions apparentes soit la reconnaissance de l'exis tence de plusieurs sous-populations discrètes se distinguant les unes des autres par leur localisation ou leur association à des compartiments cellulaires distincts. L'existence de ces sous-populations ouvre la possibilité que chaque population soit régulée indépendamment plutôt que globalement. Logiquement, chaque population locale pourrait être régulée de façon distincte afin d'exercer une fonction précise. Cette revue traitera de ces mécanismes qui incluent la régulation de l'expression et l'assemblage des sous-unités de la CK2, sa phosphorylation, ses interactions avec des petites molécules ou des protéines cellulaires qui pourraient contribuer à la régulation locale des populations de CK2 distinctes.Mots clés : Protéine kinase CK2, régulation, phosphorylation, interactions protéine/protéine, domaines HIKE, interactions régulatrices, CKIP-1, transduction de signal.[Traduit par la Rédaction]
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: December 1, 2004

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