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Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids-enriched hen eggs consumption enhances microvascular reactivity in young healthy individuals

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The beneficial effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplementation on the cardiovascular (CV) system is well supported in CV patients; however, the effect of the consumption of omega-3 PUFA-enriched functional food in healthy individuals is still not fully elucidated. This study aimed to determine the effect of the consumption of omega-3 PUFA-enriched hen eggs on the microvascular reactivity (primary outcome), blood pressure (BP), and serum lipid profile in young healthy individuals. The control group (N = 16) ate 3 ordinary hen eggs (277 mg of omega-3 PUFAs/day), and the OMEGA-3 group (N = 20) ate 3 omega-3 PUFA-enriched eggs containing 259 mg of omega-3 PUFAs/egg daily (α-linolenic acid (ALA), 167 mg/egg; eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 7 mg/egg; docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 84 mg/egg) for 3 weeks (777 mg of omega-3 PUFA/day). Postocclusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) in skin microcirculation assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry, serum lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and arterial BP were measured in all subjects before and after the protocol. PORH was significantly enhanced, and triglycerides, hsCRP, and BP were significantly decreased in the OMEGA-3 group compared with baseline measurements, whereas there was no significant difference in the control group after the protocol when compared with baseline. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that consumption of a mixture of omega-3 PUFA (ALA + EPA + DHA), provided via enriched hen eggs, elicits changes in the microvascular reactivity, BP, and triglyceride level in healthy subjects that are associated with CV benefits, thus suggesting that daily consumption of omega-3 PUFA-enriched eggs in healthy individuals may potentially contribute to CV risk factor attenuation and disease prevention.
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Keywords: acides gras polyinsaturés oméga 3; débitmètre Doppler à laser; fonction vasculaire; laser Doppler flowmetry; microcirculation; omega-3 PUFA; profil sérique des lipides; serum lipid profile; vascular function

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Physiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Osijek HR-31000, Croatia. 2: Department for Special Zootechnics, Faculty of Agriculture, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Osijek HR-31000, Croatia.

Publication date: January 1, 2018

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