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Resveratrol prevents insulin resistance caused by short-term elevation of free fatty acids in vivo

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Elevated levels of plasma free fatty acids (FFA), which are commonly found in obesity, induce insulin resistance. FFA activate protein kinases including the proinflammatory IκBα kinase β (IKKβ), leading to serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and impaired insulin signaling. To test whether resveratrol, a polyphenol found in red wine, prevents FFA-induced insulin resistance, we used a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with a tracer to assess hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in overnight-fasted Wistar rats infused for 7 h with saline, Intralipid plus 20 U·mL−1 heparin (IH; triglyceride emulsion that elevates FFA levels in vivo; 5.5 μL·min−1) with or without resveratrol (3 mg·kg−1·h−1), or resveratrol alone. Infusion of IH significantly decreased glucose infusion rate (GIR; P < 0.05) and peripheral glucose utilization (P < 0.05) and increased endogenous glucose production (EGP; P < 0.05) during the clamp compared with saline infusion. Resveratrol co-infusion, however, completely prevented the effects induced by IH infusion: it prevented the decreases in GIR (P < 0.05 vs. IH), peripheral glucose utilization (P < 0.05 vs. IH), and insulin-induced suppression of EGP (P < 0.05 vs. IH). Resveratrol alone had no effect. Furthermore, IH infusion increased serine (307) phosphorylation of IRS-1 in soleus muscle (∼30-fold, P < 0.001), decreased total IRS-1 levels, and decreased IκBα content, consistent with activation of IKKβ. Importantly, all of these effects were abolished by resveratrol (P < 0.05 vs. IH). These results suggest that resveratrol prevents FFA-induced hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance and, therefore, may help mitigate the health consequences of obesity.
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Keywords: dyslipidemia; dyslipidémie; insulin resistance; insulinorésistance; metabolism; muscle squelettique; métabolisme; obesity; obésité; skeletal muscle

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 2015

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