Resveratrol prevents insulin resistance caused by short-term elevation of free fatty acids in vivo
Elevated levels of plasma free fatty acids (FFA), which are commonly found in obesity, induce insulin resistance. FFA activate protein kinases including the proinflammatory IκBα kinase β (IKKβ), leading to serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and impaired insulin signaling. To test whether resveratrol, a polyphenol found in red wine, prevents FFA-induced insulin resistance, we used a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with a tracer to assess hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in overnight-fasted Wistar rats infused for 7 h with saline, Intralipid plus 20 U·mL−1 heparin (IH; triglyceride emulsion that elevates FFA levels in vivo; 5.5 μL·min−1) with or without resveratrol (3 mg·kg−1·h−1), or resveratrol alone. Infusion of IH significantly decreased glucose infusion rate (GIR; P < 0.05) and peripheral glucose utilization (P < 0.05) and increased endogenous glucose production (EGP; P < 0.05) during the clamp compared with saline infusion. Resveratrol co-infusion, however, completely prevented the effects induced by IH infusion: it prevented the decreases in GIR (P < 0.05 vs. IH), peripheral glucose utilization (P < 0.05 vs. IH), and insulin-induced suppression of EGP (P < 0.05 vs. IH). Resveratrol alone had no effect. Furthermore, IH infusion increased serine (307) phosphorylation of IRS-1 in soleus muscle (∼30-fold, P < 0.001), decreased total IRS-1 levels, and decreased IκBα content, consistent with activation of IKKβ. Importantly, all of these effects were abolished by resveratrol (P < 0.05 vs. IH). These results suggest that resveratrol prevents FFA-induced hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance and, therefore, may help mitigate the health consequences of obesity.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: January 1, 2015
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