Political identity, gender identity or both? The political effects of sexual orientation and gender identity items in survey research
Issues arising from the measurement of gender identity on surveys have received scant attention from survey methodologists. We make use of three studies (two in the US and one in Mexico) to look at the effects of asking about gender identity on downstream measurements of political party affiliation. In all three studies, we show a significant impact of priming respondents to think about gender identity on expressed political identity. In two of the studies, we also find conditional effects based on the predispositions of respondents, and we find throughout that these effects are much stronger for men than for women.
- Asking about their gender identity leads to significant shifts in men’s reported partisanship.
- In the US, saying that they are more masculine leads men to say that they are more Republican.
- While they are needed to bring our analyses in line with our theories, researchers need to be careful about how they use sexual orientation and gender identity items in surveys.
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