Skip to main content
padlock icon - secure page this page is secure

Functional anatomy of the footpad vasculature of dogs: scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts

Buy Article:

$52.00 + tax (Refund Policy)

Abstract

Dogs are well adapted to cold climates and they can stand, walk and run on snow and ice for long periods of time. In contrast to the body trunk, which has, dense fur, the paws are more exposed to the cold due to the lack of fur insulation. The extremities have a high surface area‐to‐volume ratio, so they lose heat very easily. We offer anatomical evidence for a heat‐conserving structure associated with dog footpad vasculature. Methylmethacrylate vascular corrosion casts for scanning electron microscopy, Indian ink‐injected whole‐mount and histological specimens were each prepared, in a series of 16 limbs from four adult dogs. Vascular casts and Indian ink studies showed that abundant venules were arranged around the arteries supplying the pad surface and formed a vein–artery–vein triad, with the peri‐arterial venous network intimately related to the arteries. In addition, numerous arteriovenous anastomoses and well‐developed venous plexuses were found throughout the dermal vasculature. The triad forms a counter‐current heat exchanger. When the footpad is exposed to a cold environment, the counter‐current heat exchanger serves to prevent heat loss by recirculating heat back to the body core. Furthermore, the arteriovenous anastomoses shift blood flow, draining blood to the skin surface, and the venous plexuses retain warm blood in the pad surface. Hence, the appropriate temperature for the footpad can be maintained in cold environments.
No References
No Citations
No Supplementary Data
No Article Media
No Metrics

Language: English

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Yamazaki Gakuen University, 4-7-2 Minami-osawa, Hachiouji, Tokyo 192-0364, Japan

Publication date: December 1, 2011

  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
X
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more