FERONIA mutation induces high levels of chloroplast‐localized Arabidopsides which are involved in root growth
The FERONIA (FER) signaling pathway is known to have diverse roles in Arabidopsis thaliana, such as growth, reproduction, and defense, but how this receptor kinase is involved in various biological processes is not well established. In this work, we applied multiple mass spectrometry techniques to identify metabolites involved in the FER signaling pathway and to understand their biological roles. A direct infusion Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT‐ICR)‐MS approach was used for initial screening of wild‐type and feronia (fer) mutant plant extracts, and Arabidopsides were found to be significantly enriched in the mutant. As Arabidopsides are known to be induced by wounding, further experiments on wounded and non‐wounded leaf samples were carried out to investigate these oxylipins as well as related phytohormones using a quadrupole‐time‐of‐flight (Q‐TOF) MS by direct injection and LC‐MS/MS. In a root growth bioassay with Arabidopside A isolated from fer mutants, the wild‐type showed significant root growth inhibition compared with the fer mutant. Our results therefore implicated Arabidopsides, and Arabidopside A specifically, in FER functions and/or signaling. Finally, matrix‐assisted laser desorption/ionization MS imaging (MALDI‐MSI) was used to visualize the localization of Arabidopsides, and we confirmed that Arabidopsides are highly abundant at wounding sites in both wild‐type and fer mutant leaves. More significantly, five micron high‐spatial resolution MALDI‐MSI revealed that Arabidopsides are localized to the chloroplasts where many stress signaling molecules are made.
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