Proteomic analysis of lysine acetylation provides strong evidence for involvement of acetylated proteins in plant meiosis and tapetum function
Protein lysine acetylation (KAC) is a dynamic and reversible post‐translational modification that has important biological roles in many organisms. Although KAC has been shown to affect reproductive development and meiosis in yeast and animals, similar studies are largely lacking in flowering plants, especially proteome‐scale investigations for particular reproductive stages. Here, we report results from a proteomic investigation to detect the KAC status of the developing rice anthers near the time of meiosis (RAM), providing strong biochemical evidence for roles of many KAC‐affected proteins during anther development and meiosis in rice. We identified a total of 1354 KAC sites in 676 proteins. Among these, 421 acetylated proteins with 629 KAC sites are novel, greatly enriching our knowledge on KAC in flowering plants. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis showed chromatin silencing, protein folding, fatty acid biosynthetic process and response to stress to be over‐represented. In addition, certain potentially specific KAC motifs in RAM were detected. Importantly, 357 rice meiocyte proteins were acetylated; and four proteins genetically identified to be important for rice tapetum and pollen development were acetylated on 14 KAC sites in total. Furthermore, 47 putative secretory proteins were detected to exhibit acetylated status in RAM. Moreover, by comparing our lysine acetylome with the RAM phosphoproteome we obtained previously, we proposed a correlation between KAC and phosphorylation as a potential modulatory mechanism in rice RAM. This study provides the first global survey of KAC in plant reproductive development, making a promising starting point for further functional analysis of KAC during rice anther development and meiosis.
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