ZINC TOLERANCE INDUCED BY IRON 1 reveals the importance of glutathione in the cross‐homeostasis between zinc and iron in Arabidopsis thaliana
Zinc is an essential micronutrient for plants, but it is toxic in excess concentrations. In Arabidopsis, additional iron (Fe) can increase Zn tolerance. We isolated a mutant, zinc tolerance induced by iron 1, designated zir1, with a defect in Fe‐mediated Zn tolerance. Using map‐based cloning and genetic complementation, we identified that zir1 has a mutation of glutamate to lysine at position 385 on γ‐glutamylcysteine synthetase (GSH1), the enzyme involved in glutathione biosynthesis. The zir1 mutant contains only 15% of the wild‐type glutathione level. Blocking glutathione biosynthesis in wild‐type plants by a specific inhibitor of GSH1, buthionine sulfoximine, resulted in loss of Fe‐mediated Zn tolerance, which provides further evidence that glutathione plays an essential role in Fe‐mediated Zn tolerance. Two glutathione‐deficient mutant alleles of GSH1, pad2‐1 and cad2‐1, which contain 22% and 39%, respectively, of the wild‐type glutathione level, revealed that a minimal glutathione level between 22 and 39% of the wild‐type level is required for Fe‐mediated Zn tolerance. Under excess Zn and Fe, the recovery of shoot Fe contents in pad2‐1 and cad2‐1 was lower than that of the wild type. However, the phytochelatin‐deficient mutant cad1‐3 showed normal Fe‐mediated Zn tolerance. These results indicate a specific role of glutathione in Fe‐mediated Zn tolerance. The induced accumulation of glutathione in response to excess Zn and Fe suggests that glutathione plays a specific role in Fe‐mediated Zn tolerance in Arabidopsis. We conclude that glutathione is required for the cross‐homeostasis between Zn and Fe in Arabidopsis.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: March 1, 2012