Phloem-based resistance to green peach aphid is controlled by Arabidopsis PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 without its signaling partner ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1
Green peach aphid (GPA) Myzus persicae (Sülzer) is a phloem-feeding insect with an exceptionally wide host range. Previously, it has been shown that Arabidopsis thaliana PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4), which is expressed at elevated levels in response to GPA infestation, is required for resistance to GPA in the Arabidopsis accession Columbia. We demonstrate here that the role of PAD4 in the response to GPA is conserved in Arabidopsis accessions Wassilewskija and Landsberg erecta. Electrical monitoring of aphid feeding behavior revealed that PAD4 modulates a phloem-based defense mechanism against GPA. GPA spends more time actively feeding from the sieve elements of pad4 mutants than from wild-type plants, and less time feeding on transgenic plants in which PAD4 is ectopically expressed. The activity of PAD4 in limiting phloem sap uptake serves as a deterrent in host-plant choice, and restricts aphid population size. In Arabidopsis defense against pathogens, all known PAD4 functions require its signaling and stabilizing partner EDS1 (ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1). Bioassays with eds1 mutants alone or in combination with pad4 and with plants conditionally expressing PAD4 under the control of a dexamethasone-inducible promoter reveal that PAD4-modulated defense against GPA does not involve EDS1. Thus, a PAD4 mode of action that is uncoupled from EDS1 determines the extent of aphid feeding in the phloem.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Department of Entomology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA 2: Max-Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Department of Plant–Microbe Interactions, Carl von Linné Weg 10, 50829 Cologne, Germany, and
Publication date: October 1, 2007