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Free Content Arabidopsis homologue of human transcription factor IIH/nucleotide excision repair factor p44 can function in transcription and DNA repair and interacts with AtXPD

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Eukaryotic general transcription factor (TF) IIH is composed of 10 proteins, seven of which are also required for nucleotide excision repair (NER) of UV radiation‐induced DNA damage in human cells and yeast. Plant homologues of the human TFIIH subunits XPB and XPD that function in NER have been isolated but none has been shown to operate in transcription. Here we address the capabilities of Arabidopsis thaliana AtGTF2H2 and AtXPD, homologues of the essential interacting human/yeast TFIIH components p44/Ssl1 and XPD/Rad3, respectively. Expression of AtGTF2H2 or AtXPD cDNAs in yeast ssl1 or rad3 mutants temperature‐sensitive for growth due to thermolabile transcription of mRNA restored growth and so transcription at the non‐permissive temperature. AtGTF2H2 also complemented the NER deficiency of the corresponding yeast mutant, as measured by full recovery of UV resistance, whereas AtXPD did not despite being necessary for NER in Arabidopsis. UV treatment did not upregulate transcription of AtGTF2H2 or AtXPD in Arabidopsis. Suppression of a yeast translation initiation defect by the ssl1‐1 mutation was prevented by expression of AtGTF2H2. Deletion of SSL1 in a yeast strain expressing AtGTF2H2 did not affect growth or confer UV sensitivity, demonstrating that AtGTF2H2 can perform all essential transcription functions and UV damage repair duties of Ssl1 in its absence. Furthermore, AtGTF2H2 interacted with AtXPD and yeast Rad3, and AtXPD also interacted with yeast Ssl1 in two‐hybrid assays. Our results indicate that AtGTF2H2 can act in transcription and NER, and suggest that it participates in both processes in Arabidopsis as part of TFIIH.
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Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana; functional complementation; nucleotide excision repair; protein interaction; transcription factor IIH; yeast

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217, Australia

Publication date: May 1, 2006

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