NPH4/ARF7 and ARF19 promote leaf expansion and auxin-induced lateral root formation
Auxin response factors (ARFs) bind auxin response promoter elements and mediate transcriptional responses to auxin. Five of the 22 ARF genes in Arabidopsis thaliana encode ARFs with glutamine-rich middle domains. Four of these can activate transcription and have been ascribed developmental functions. We show that ARF19, the fifth Q-rich ARF, also activates transcription. Mutations in ARF19 have little effect on their own, but in combination with mutations in NPH4/ARF7, encoding the most closely related ARF, they cause several phenotypes including a drastic decrease in lateral and adventitious root formation and a decrease in leaf cell expansion. These results indicate that auxin induces lateral roots and leaf expansion by activating NPH4/ARF7 and ARF19. Auxin induces the ARF19 gene, and NPH4/ARF7 and ARF19 together are required for expression of one of the arf19 mutant alleles, suggesting that a positive feedback loop regulates leaf expansion and/or lateral root induction.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB no. 3280, Coker Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3280, USA, 2: Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri, Missouri, Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211, USA, and 3: Plant Biology Laboratory, The Salk Institute, La Jolla, CA 92186-5800, USA
Publication date: July 1, 2005